Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management <p>Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management (JAETM) is an open-access, double-blinded peer-reviewed journal that accepts papers in the domain of applied engineering, technology and management. The targets of this journal are to provide a platform for publishing scholarly articles by academics, researchers, students and practicing professionals.</p> <p>JAETM is an annual journal that will be published annually (June) and does not have any fees associated with submission as well as publication. The call for paper would be updated regularly in the web portal of the journal. The aspiring author needs to submit an abstract to the editor-in-chief for further direction.</p> <p>JAETM follows double-blinded peer-review where each submitted article will first be checked by the editorial board to assure overall author guidelines and associated assurances. The selected paper will then be reviewed by invited reviewers from the relevant subject domain. Each paper will be reviewed by at least TWO reviewers and the decision of reviewers along with the editorial board will be taken for the final decision for publication. </p> <p>JAETM is a research journal of Jigme Namgyel Engineering College, Royal University of Bhutan. Currently, it is managed by the office of Dean Research and Industrial Linkages of the college.</p> Jigme Namgyel Engineering College en-US Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management 2707-4978 DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMI-DISTRIBUTED HYDROLOGICAL MODEL FOR GLACIATED PUNATSHANGCHU BASIN IN BHUTAN <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-weight: normal;">Hydropower plays a pivotal role in the socio-economic development of Bhutan where water resource is abundantly available and therefore several hydropower plants are being planned and a few under construction. However, with the presence of several potentially dangerous glacier lakes within the higher elevations, the country is always at the risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) and climate change which poses higher uncertainty regarding the sustainability of hydropower reservoirs in the long run. To understand the hydrological response of the basin, where new hydropower plants are going to be installed soon, a complex semi-distributed hydrological model has been prepared for the Punatshangchu basin using <em>RS MINERVE</em>. After calibration and validation of the model, it is observed that the model reflects low relative volume bias (-0.196 - 0.050) and high Nash efficiency (0.540 - 0.990) which is an important aspect to be considered for any hydropower dam and its operational schemes. Such a model is a viable tool well adapted to an operational flood forecasting system and management. With the built-in scheme for hydropower, reservoir, planner, and turbines within <em>RS Minerve,</em> it could be used to understand the array of scenarios for planning and operations. </span></p> Vasker Sharma Jessica Jorden Pedro Manso Giovanni De Cesare Copyright (c) 2021 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management (JAETM) 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 1 1 1 13 10.54417/jaetm.v1i1.19 ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING DESIGN - A CASE STUDY OF JIGME NAMGYEL ENGINEERING COLLEGE <p>This study focuses on efficient lighting design in Jigme Namgyel Engineering College (JNEC), under the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB). To carry out the detailed study and review of the existing lighting scheme, Relux simulation software was used and it is one of the high-performance software to simulate electric and daylight for illumination design and study.</p> <p>The study was based on the existing lighting scheme and a comparative study employing different luminaires (fluorescent lamp and LED) was performed succeeded by designing an efficient illumination lighting scheme. Further to increase energy saving during the daytime, daylight has been integrated with all the lighting schemes studied. The simulation result exhibits that the average illuminance for the existing lighting scheme is 161lx which does not meet the standard lx level for given infrastructures. Two new lighting schemes using fluorescent lamps and LED lamps were suggested following the standard lx level recommended at the workplace. The comparative life cycle cost analysis of the proposed lighting scheme resulted in 59.9% energy saving potential and accounted for a payback period of 2years when employing LED lamps instead of existing illumination fixtures.</p> Karma Yangzom Hemlal Bhattarai Sonam Choki Pema Choden Sonam Yangden Copyright (c) 2021 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management (JAETM) 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 1 1 14 21 10.54417/jaetm.v1i1.20 PERFORMANCE MEASURE OF SERIES-PARALLEL PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCER CIRCUITY FOR IMPROVEMENT OF OUTPUT VOLTAGE <p>This project presents a comparative study between power generation using piezoelectric transducers available in the literature and the proposed model design. The parallel and series-connected piezoelectric transducers arrangement in this project, when subjected to mechanical stress (footsteps), generates an electric charge. The power generated from piezoelectric transducers will be given as input to bridge rectifier and chopper for conversion to dc quantity and its amplification respectively. This energy will be stored in a Li-ion battery. The paper mainly highlights aspects of improvement of power generation by optimizing circuit design and adapting output enhancement and amplification. Comparative analysis of power generated from predecessor circuit designs and output voltage obtained from current circuit design is validated and presented</p> Tenzin Dema Srijana Gajmer Tashi Dema Renuka Mothey Birman Rai Copyright (c) 2021 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management (JAETM) 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 1 1 22 33 10.54417/jaetm.v1i1.21 EFFECTS OF INFILL WALLS ON BUILDING BEHAVIOUR UNDER SEISMIC LOADS <p>In the design of Reinforced Concrete (RC) building, infill walls are normally assumed as non-structural elements and they are accepted as vertical uniform loads on beams. Therefore, the RC buildings are designed as bare frame structures. However, in reality, infill walls are present in RC buildings, and the seismic performance of the buildings will be different with and without infill walls.&nbsp; In this study, 5 storey RC buildings with 2 bays and 5 bays in X-direction and Y-direction respectively are considered. The infill walls were replaced as equivalent diagonal struts and the non-linear static pushover analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of infill walls on the overall performance of the structures. The lateral strength capacity and performance point of the building were determined for the conventional (bare frame) method and with the presence of infill walls. The study reveals that the effects of infill walls under seismic loads in significant until elastic region in which the initial stiffness and strength of the structures increases, while lateral deformation capacity decreases. It is also observed that there are no significant changes in terms of ultimate lateral strength and roof displacement of the building as compared within presence of infill walls and bare frame.&nbsp;</p> Lobzang Dorji Copyright (c) 2021 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management (JAETM) 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 1 1 34 44 10.54417/jaetm.v1i1.22 LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL OF INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEM GRID INVOLVING WIND AND HYDROPOWER PLANT AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS <p>Power demand is expanding day by day. The greatest test is to give continuous and top-notch power to clients in factor conditions particularly when we interconnect the two areas utilizing power tie-line. To achieve this, the two boundaries should consistently be checked for each condition, these boundaries are Load Distribution and Load Frequency Control (LFC).The primary work of the load frequency control is to regulate the power output of the generator within a specified area with respect to change in system frequency and tie-line power, such as to maintain the scheduled system frequency and power interchange with other areas in a prescribed limit [1][2]. In this paper, the study of LFC system for two areas consisting of Hydropower Plant and Wind Power Plant are carried out. The fuzzy gain scheduled proportional-integral (FGSPI) and fuzzy gain scheduled proportional integral derivative (FGSPID) controllers are designed for load frequency control (LFC) of a two-area interconnected power system. The proposed FGSPI and FGSPID controllers are compared against conventional proportional-integral (PI) controllers and Proportional integral derivation (PID) controllers concerning settling times and peak overshoots of the tie-line power and frequency deviations as performance indices. Comparative analysis indicates that the proposed intelligent controller gives better performance than conventional controllers. Simulations have been performed using Simulink toolbox in MATLAB.</p> Pradeep Rai Bikram Chhetri Chimi Dem Khalishore Chhetri Phuntsho Tashi Sanjita Lepcha Copyright (c) 2021 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management (JAETM) 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 1 1 45 56 10.54417/jaetm.v1i1.23 ANALYSIS ON PREDICTION OF PATH LOSS FOR MOBILE NETWORK IN JNEC, DEWATHANG AT 1800 MHz <p>As the mobile cellular subscription is constantly increasing, the demand for good network and data traffic, remains to be high. In order to achieve that, proper network planning is important to enhance reliable mobile network and optimization. Path loss modelling is extensively used in the initial feasibility studies for the proper deployment of telecommunication. Prediction of path loss helps to indicates the field strength of the radio propagation. Path loss is the weakening of signal strength during propagation and can be determined by using different models. Largely affected by the complex terrain, buildings, trees, generally, the path loss is caused by reflection, refraction and diffraction. The evaluation is performed at 1800 MHz frequency which is the operating band of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) 4G network service in the region. A comparative study is done between different types of path loss models used in LTE networks in MATLAB. Analysis of path loss for irregular terrain in the region is also being simulated using Radio-mobile. With this study, a person can predict the mobile signal quality and a proper network can be planned.</p> Bevek Subba Namgay Dema Thinley Wangmo Copyright (c) 2021 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management (JAETM) 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 1 1 57 66 10.54417/jaetm.v1i1.24 SIMULATION AND MODELING OF INTEGRATED RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES (HYDRO, SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY) <p>Renewable energy sources are likely to become prominent in the future due to less environmental impact and energy cost escalation. However, due to its intermittent essence, it encourages us to integrate various renewable energy resources to improve the reliability and quality of power supply to the consumer. Henceforth, this paper emphasizes the integration of various renewable energy sources (RES) such as - photovoltaic (PV), wind energy (WE) and hydro-electric grid (HEG) systems through software simulation. The purpose of this research was to compare the end user power quality and reliability between isolated mode and integrated mode operation of the power system through the result analysis in MATLAB simulation. In this qualitative study, the required data on wind and solar of a particular place, Samdrup Jongkhar (Bhutan) were collected in the form of satellite recorded data (NASA and SolarGIS). The result from this study highlights the nature of energy output from isolated-mode operated power plants and integrated power plant systems. From the result analysis, it has been shown that the quality and reliability of energy output from an integrated power system is much higher as compared to the isolated-mode operated power plant.</p> Sangay Dorji Hemlal Bhattarai Parashuram Sharma Sonam Yoser Karma Singye Jigme Tenzin Copyright (c) 2021 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management (JAETM) 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 1 1 67 78 10.54417/jaetm.v1i1.25 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MAPPING FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION STEREO IMAGERY AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS USING EXISTING DATA <p>The launch of the very high resolution (VHR) sensor satellites has paved the way for further exploitation of the capabilities of stereo satellite imagery for many applications and most importantly in the extraction of topographical details. Advances in digital technologies in the photogrammetric technique provide more accurate and up to date topographic representation, while traditional methods of topographic mapping are time-consuming and require large technical support. This paper explores the methods of production and an analysis of the capabilities of the high-resolution stereo imaging system for the extraction of features (topographic map) and generation of digital elevation model (DEM). This study uses high-resolution GeoEye-1 stereo pair images. For qualitative assessment, topographic features were extracted by digitizing the georeferenced stereo pair images and overlapped to form a DEM and orthophoto within the Summit Evolution software. Georeferencing was carried out using the existing Ground Control Points (GCPs) and Check Points (CPs) established using Real-Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System (RTK-GNSS) technique. For quantitative assessment, a total of 7 existing GCPs were considered suitable for use and 5 CPs were established as a check for accuracy of the output. The accuracy of the CPs was evaluated by computing Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The average horizontal RMSE for the left image and right image were 1.17150098m and 0.819334672m respectively and the average vertical RMSE was 1.605898565m. Additionally, the standard deviation for elevation data from generated DEM using photogrammetric technique and existing elevation data of RTK-GNSS technique were computed, which resulted in 15.91286667 and 16.59529228 respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results of the data extracted using stereo satellite images and those extracted from ground measurement techniques (Total station and RTK-GNSS). The comparative analysis showed that stereo pair images provide a viable alternative to other ground mapping techniques providing results within the acceptable range. Based on error estimation and analysis, it concludes that, if strict photogrammetric processing model and ground control points are employed, high-resolution satellite imagery can be used for the accurate generation and update of the topographic maps, DEM and digital orthophotos, which can be further be used as a reference for comparative analysis applications.</p> Yangchen Pelmo Jigme tENZIN Dawa Tshering Pema Tshedrup Copyright (c) 2021 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management (JAETM) 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 1 1 79 90 10.54417/jaetm.v1i1.26 FORENSIC AND BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF FREE ANDROID VPNS <p>Millions of users worldwide use VPN clients to either circumvent censorship or to access geo-blocked content, and specifically for privacy and security purposes. In the pretext of secured communication and privacy, numerous free android-based VPNs are being pushed up in the Google Play store. However, the users aren’t sure or aware of whether the VPN is truly secure or just leaking their data. So, the forensic and behavior analysis of selected free android VPNs was carried out to study the usability of free android-based VPNs in terms of providing security and privacy; specifically, the presence of dangerous permissions, malware presence, traffic encryption, the DNS leaks, and the possibility of leaving forensic artifacts on the device after the VPN use. The study revealed considerable portion of the sample free VPNs were flagged malicious and had dangerous levels of permissions in use. While some failed the DNS leak test and some VPNs even did not encrypt the traffic. Given the availability of a huge number of Free VPNs in the Google Play store, it was found important that the users must be aware of the inherent risks put by the use of these Free VPNs.</p> Tashi Wangchuk Digvijaysingh Rathod Copyright (c) 2021 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management (JAETM) 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 1 1 91 101 10.54417/jaetm.v1i1.27