• Gautam Thapa Freelance consultant and Corresponding Author
  • Kaushila Timshina Freelance Researcher
  • Krishna Kumar Subedi Chhukha Higher Secondary School, Ministry of Education



water balance, water deficit, water surplus, thornthwaite, mather (TM) model


The water balance of a watershed is critical for the estimation of the water budget to meet the
present and future domestic and economic demand and supply of water. Water balance parameters like
precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration soil moisture content deficit and surplus determine the
water budget of a watershed which is further influenced by factors like land use, soil types, seasonal
variation and other environmental factors. This paper intends to estimate the water balance of the
Barsachhu watershed using Thornthwaite and Mather (TM) model. The use of Remote Sensing data and
GIS as a tool were used in deriving the required data in executing the model. The study indicates that the
monthly soil moisture content (deficit or surplus) is substantially influenced by the change in monthly
rainfall, temperature and land use land cover pattern. April to October remain water surplus months while
November to March remains a period of deficit. The soil moisture content has a different response to
different land use in the Barsachhu watershed. The maximum annual moisture deficit and surplus of the
basin are 126.27 mm and 2430.79 mm respectively and is observed in built-up areas. The runoff
coefficient of the Barsachhu watershed computed from the runoff simulation of the TM model is 0.63.


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How to Cite

Thapa, G., Timshina, K., & Subedi, K. K. (2022). ESTIMATION OF WATER BALANCE OF BARSACHHU WATERSHED IN CHUKHA BHUTAN USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS. Journal of Applied Engineering, Technology and Management, 2(1), 1–14.